Networks and Artworks
the Failure of the User Friendly Interface
Copyright (C) Paul Brown 1996
First published in Computers & Art, Intellect Books, January 1997
All Rights Reserved
Background and history
What is multimedia?
The World Wide Web
Conclusion - the User Friendly Dilemma
About Computers & Art
This essay describes how communication systems have been used by
a few artists and attempts to place their practice within the historical and
critical context of post-modernist dialogue and, in particular, the evolution
of a new communication paradigm. It also questions the value of
"user-friendly" user interfaces. By adopting metaphors which reflect existing
media usage these interface tools reinforce traditional points-of-view and make
it difficult, if not impossible, to investigate and develop a new multi-media
context and "language".
In 1990, I was driving north from Los Angeles to San Francisco on
US Highway 5. The billboards flickered mindlessly past promoting the usual
commodities: Camel cigarettes; United Airlines to Hawaii and the telco wars
between MCI, Sprint and AT&T. Then a huge billboard advertising an obscure
integrated circuit caught my eye! We were, of course, in San José, the
capital of Silicon Valley and these unique billboards had been created to
catch the attention of the few commuting engineers who design and build
tomorrows personal computers.
Just recently, some five years later, one of my graduate students who is
attending a weekly seminar on computers and the arts brought along a receipt
from her local supermarket. On the reverse side, along with the usual
two-for-one video offers and dry cleaning ads was a promotion by a local
Internet service provider. Unlike the niche focussed billboards of Silicon
Valley this advertisement was pitched squarely at average consumers who shop at
any suburban mall in middle class Australia.
In just two short years the Internet has blossomed into public attention. An
anarchistic information bush track, created by hackers and academics, has
caught the attention of a public who were, in any case, well primed by the
rhetoric of the corporate "InfoBahn" and the emphasis on new technologies
contained in media hype and national government initiatives like the Australian
cultural policy statement "Creative Nation" (DOC94).
This general `net awareness also provides a perfect dessert for the moves to
pluralism instigated by post-modern socialism that will, hopefully permanently,
replace the legacy of right-wing nationalism that dominated the middle years of
this century. The Sydney-based writer Ross Gibson recently defined the new
"nationalism" as a boundary that contains difference rather than similarity
(GIB95). And now the Internet promises to remove those geographic boundaries
and create an egalitarian global information exchange.
Let's put to the back of our minds, for the time being (this essay has to be
short), the fact that four fifths of the global population probably desire a
reliable source of food rather than of information. And lets try to ignore
the disturbing fact that many of those who are most eloquent in espousing this
new electronic democracy are non other than the right-wing fundamentalists of
the US Republican party.
Today's Internet has it's origins in the so-called "Cold War"
between the USA and USSR. The US Defence Department were concerned that a
Soviet strike could seriously effect communications between the military
command and control centres. The Rand Corporation's "Think Tank" suggested a
new and unique method of connecting military units which would enable the
communications infrastructure to survive such an attack. It was a linked
network of individual nodes. A message could be successfully transmitted from
one node to another so long as only one of the many possible routes connecting
them still exists.
Also a new and unique method of content communication was used. The original
message was digitised then broken up into smaller "packets". Each packet would
be transmitted and find the most direct route to the receiver node. Individual
packets could take any of the different possible routes available by taking the
least used exit from any given intermediate node. The receiving node would
reconstruct the message by unpacking each component packet in it's original
order. Missing packets, or those containing errors, could be re-requested by
The system was implemented as the ARPANet (named for the Defence Department's
Advanced Research and Procurement Agency which commissioned the project). It
was followed by the US National Science Foundation's NSFNet. Other countries
developed similar networks like JANET (the UK's Joint Academic Network) and
AARNet (Australian Academic Research Network). IBM built their own
international network called BITNET. Other companies built both internal
networks and access provision for other smaller companies and individuals.
Each of these networks is "gated" to others to form an international network.
The Internet proved remarkably sturdy and reliable and grew within academia as
well as the military and information technology corporate sectors during the
1970's and 80's.
Since the mid 80's many novel, and easy to use, human interfaces have been
developed for the Internet and the proliferation of independent internet
providers has enabled rapid growth into the corporate and domestic sector.
Soon it will be the dominant communications medium of the military/industrial
Although packet switched networks were originally a text only medium recent
advances in digital compression have enabled the successful transmission of
both audio and video using these "packet switching" networks. Now
international telecommunications agencies are developing packet switched
high-bandwidth networks that have been collectively dubbed the "information
superhighway" or "Infobahn". We can consider today's internet as a "bush
track" that will evolve over the next five years into this international
By the millennium many people in the developed world could be connected to such
facilities and receive most, if not all, of their information needs via
interactive multimedia networks. Already they offer content and resources for
education; entertainment and work. Provider companies are competing ever more
ruthlessly for market share of this information future. Significant legal,
moral and ethical questions are raised by both the nature of the network itself
as well as by the behaviour of governments, corporations and lobby groups who
are working to either dominate or some way control this marketplace.
The phrase "computer graphics" is believed to have first appeared
in an engineers report at the Boeing aerospace company in 1963. By 1968 the
visionary Ted Nelson had coined the term "hypertext" and, by the turn of the
70's he and colleagues like Dick Schoup, Alan Kay and John Warnock, all working
at Xerox PARC, were developing the tools of personal computing. However the
technology that would eventually deliver integrated multimedia on a
cost-effective personal computer platform didn't appear until the mid 80's and
standards are still in development ten years later.
If we pursue a historical metaphor and compare either photography or motion
pictures we find a 40-50 year hiatus between the invention of a technology and
its assimilation into the creative process and the evolution of a aesthetic
language that is unique to that particular technology/medium. It's tempting to
speculate about what multimedia may become as it matures as a means of
expression and to predict just how grotesque today's CD-ROM and network
offerings will appear once that mature perspective is in place.
Will the very large investment in multimedia that is currently underwritten by
both the corporate and government sector enable this evolution to be
accelerated -or- will it instead impede a "natural" development, slowing it
down or, perhaps, even prevent it from maturing at all? In an age of economic
rationalism most of this investment is into the creation of product. Product
which is very quickly remaindered or, once purchased, becomes a "fifteen minute
wonder" and afterwards put into the drawer and forgotten.
Artists have a reputation for experimentation with their medium. In the high
modernism of the 1960's the medium actually became the message for many
artists. Now, in the waning years of Post-modernism and the resurgence of what
Peter French has described Neo-modernism many are promoting the role of the
artist in developing a multimedia language.
Artist have been actively working in communication media for many
years. Mail art flourished in the transition years of the 60's. My first
introduction was in a Liverpool bedsit in 1968. A postcard pinned to the wall
invited the reader to ... "Pin this card to the opposite wall". The Japanese
artist On Kawara was sending postcards consisting of a bold declaration of the
precise time or date of posting or the simple message ... "I am On Kawara".
One of my own first works was made in the early 70's. A large statement was
cut up and posted to several recipients as single postcards each containing a
small part of the text. Although a few of the recipients knew each other it
was unlikely that the "message" would ever be reconstructed in full. I was
excited by the potential of enigmatic deconstruction in contrast to the
dominant logical reductionism of the day.
The commercial artworld has shown itself to be extremely resilient to attempts
to undermine its power. Many of the formats developed in the 60's and 70's
were intended to create art that could not be venerated by the establishment or
turned into investment fodder by the guru's of Green Street, Bond Street and
the Latin Quarter. Stuart Brisley's 70's performances, where he immersed
himself in a bath full of offal or vomited over himself, were specifically
designed to be unmarketable. Now, as pension day becomes inevitable, Stuart
sells limited edition prints of those performances via the same art market he
so earnestly confronted thirty years ago.
Mail art has, to some extent and perhaps thanks to it's lowly
stature, survived the parasites of the commercial artworld. It remains an
artform of enthusiasts. Then, during the 1980's, the growth in use of the Fax
machine provided an excellent and ephemeral medium for communications art.
"Fax Art" is a fairly meaningless phrase and serves to marginalise the practice
and diminish it's value. The varieties of artworks that have been enabled by
the fax medium defy such a simplistic title.
Art Reseaux are an international telecommunications art group based in Paris.
In their 1992 book (ORO92) Eduardo Kac comments:
He goes on to state that ...
- "The social impact of the telephone sparks the idea of art as a dialogue, going
beyond the notion of art as object making. The understanding of art as
intercommunication moves us away from the issue of what is it that art or
the artist communicates? to question the very structure of the
communication process itself".
Art Reseaux's "Connect" was led by group member Gilbertto Prado and is typical
of their approach. Several international locations are linked via fax
connections. Each location has two fax machines. One is receiving, the other
sending. The two machines are similarly linked by a single roll of paper which
constantly emerges from the receiver and tracks down a long table before being
consumed by the sending system. Whilst on the table participants add to the
content with drawing materials and collage. The piece is a complete loop which
simultaneously connects all participants regardless of the geographical
location. The long fax "scrolls" that emerged from the piece were exhibited at
the Art Reseaux exhibition at the Gallery Bernanos in Paris in April 1992.
Each long scroll was suspended from the ceiling forcing the viewer to walk
along below and stare upward as they walked.
- "Telematic art ...
is inventing the multilogue of networking as a collaborative art form".
Their best known and most ambitious piece is Karen O'Rourke's "City Portraits"
(ORO91). In his assessment of the project Frank Popper says:
Network art pioneer Roy Ascott comments in his essay about the work:
- "Another aspect of this project concerns the fact that it is not the ideas or
the images that are important in it but their interaction, their articulation
in a context where the mind and the imagination are at play.
"It can be maintained that this connecting tissue is at the heart of all
telematic networking and could even be considered as constituting part of the
essential equipment of all Technoscience Art." (POP91)
With the development of virtual reality and the establishment of the
"cyberspace" of the networks humanity can now be weaned from it's dependence on
a single root reality which measures all others as illusion or fantasy. Now
we are faced with an infinite spectrum of consistent immersive realities that
coexist as equals alongside the "everyday" reality of common sense. As I have
expressed elsewhere reality and illusion are converging (BRO92a,b) and new
belief systems are emerging (BRO91).
- "What the new technology, the new consciousness, the new spirituality augur is
worlds within which a multiplicity of realities can co-exist, interact, collide
join, bifurcate in an endless dance of cultural transformations. As neural
networks meet planetary networks and make the connection, so our brain will
invade the city and the city will enter our brain". (ASC91b)
Stéphan Barron is a member of the international "Aesthetics of
Communication Group". He originally studied engineering but, since 1983 has
been creating international installations based on communication technology.
His best know piece is "Lines" (1989) which connected eight locations in Europe
who each received regular fax transmissions as Barron and his partner Sylvia
Hansmann travelled along the Greenwich Meridian from the English Channel to the
Mediterranean. The work is documented in an essay by Barron (BAR91) in the
special telecommunications issue of the art and technology journal Leonardo
At the 1996 Adelaide Festival Barron will exhibit two works which
weave together the technology of the internet with some of the aesthetic,
social and political agendas that globalism implies.
His piece OZONE is a timely comment on the residual colonial arrogance of the
"First World" nations of the Northern hemisphere. Their high rates of
overpopulation together with their commitment to the ethics of redundancy that
are implicit in consumer oriented economic rationalism allow them to generate
immense quantities of chemical pollutant gasses that are destroying the
protective ozone layer of the earths atmosphere. As most Australians are aware
this destruction is focussed in the Southern Hemisphere ozone hole and is
manifested as higher than normal levels of ultra-violet radiation and the
promise of high skin cancer incidence in years to come. During 1995 several of
the culprit nations announced their intention of reneging on previous
agreements to cut the output of these noxious chemicals using the excuse that
doing so would undermine the competitiveness of their national industries and
OZONE addresses this global nationalistic conflict of wills. The artist
precedes his description of OZONE with a quote from the American composer John
The piece also reflects Cage's own work with "prepared pianos". OZONE uses two
pianos, one in the Sym Choon Gallery in Adelaide, the other in Donguy Gallery
in Paris, France. They are "played" by an automatic procedure that has two
sources. One measures the amount of ozone pollution produced by automobiles in
the streets of Paris. The other measures the high UV levels due to ozone
depletion over Adelaide. Barron describes the process:
- "The function of Art is not to communicate one's own personal ideas or feelings
but rather to imitate nature in her manner of operation".
OZONE links North and South in a dynamic dialogue regarding the future of the
planet. It's also a healing process that converts the symptoms of the problem
as manifest into digital tokens that simultaneously express sorrow for the harm
whilst also creating a symbolic exchange, a gift of ozone, that inverts the
process of depletion and invokes reversal of the physical damage that is being
- "Two acoustic computerised pianos located, one in Europe, and the other in
Australia exchange sounds produced according to the ozone coming on one side
from the Parisian automobile pollution, and on the other side according to the
hole in the ozone stratospheric layer.
"This installation is a metaphor of an "Ozone Pump" between the ozone produced
by pollution and the natural ozone.
"An "Ozone Pump" between Europe and Australia, between man and nature.
"This music is elaborated not by one person, but by human activity on a
planetary scale (pollution of the ozone) and by interaction with the sun."
Barron's other work DAY & NIGHT links East and West across a 12 hour time
difference that gives the work it's name. It's based on an earlier piece "Le
Bleu du Ciel" (The Blue of the Sky) produced by Barron in 1994. Here two
French sites, one 1000km north of the other were linked and the average of the
colours of the sky above them was calculated and displayed. Barron compares
the work to the blue monochromes of Yves Klein:
- "The project also expresses the immateriality and complexity of the phenomena
with which contemporary man is confronted. The ozone and the UV rays are
factors of complex phenomena where human physiology interacts with economic
DAY & NIGHT changes the axis of the work from north-south to east-west and
connects the Museum of Contemporary Art in Sao Paulo, Brazil with the Sym Choon
Gallery. This axis, of the revolution of the Earth, is also the axis of time.
The geographical distance gives a 12 hour time difference and since the piece
will be exhibited at the Equinox the division of day and night should be almost
exact - as the sun sets in Sao Paulo it will rise in Adelaide.
- "The purpose of this project lies in the imaginary sky, an ubiquitous sky that
exists somewhere between north and south, somewhere in our imagination. A
never ending sky. The never ending phone network.
"These live and imaginary monochromes, cosmic and in harmony with the real
skies distant by a thousand Kms, follow Yves Klein's project and his
Cameras at each gallery continuously record and transmit the colour of the sky
above them. The two images are averaged and displayed at each site. Apart
from the conjunction of dusk and dawn the resulting images are a mixture of day
It's a simple piece that nevertheless embeds a profound poetry. Barron
discusses the concept of Planetary Interdependence:
The richness of the allusions that are embedded in these pieces unfold in our
minds: fractal chaos, or non-linear theory where we are all subject to the
effects of minuscule and distant changes; the Noosphere of the Jesuit
philosopher De Chardin; Jung's "Collective Unconscious" and; the dawning
awareness of symbiosis and interdependence, of the erosion of individualism.
As these implications flower in our thoughts we too are drawn into the piece,
we become a part of the matrix, the network, the Tao:
- "It becomes more and more apparent that our destinies and gestures are linked
with those of all humans, even the most far removed.
"A solidarity, a planetary consciousness slowly elaborates itself.
"The beauty, the poetry of distance is essential. It allows us to redefine the
dimensions of our consciousness." (BAR95)
Marvin Minsky has described language as a set of tools for building ideas in
other peoples minds (MIN87). The poet William Burroughs has described language
similarly, but more subversively, as a virus. It is this power, that results
from the rejection of intrinsic self-referentiality in favour of extrinsic
indicators, of semiotic initiators, that gives telecommunication-based art it's
value and context in a post-modern era. It becomes a set of tools, a virus, an
initiator, a language.
- "The nameless was the beginning of heaven and earth;
The named was the mother of the myriad creatures.
"These two are the same
But diverge in name as they issue forth.
Being the same they are called mysteries,
Mystery upon mystery -
The gateway of the manifold secrets." (LAU63)
So it's not surprising that many of the artists working in communications and
networked media trace their roots to the Art Language, Performance and
Conceptual Art of the 1960's. It's here that we find the first concerted
attempts by artists to undermine modernism by questioning both the value and
significance of the visual arts after a century of experimentation that had
been forced on them when photography usurped the tradition of representation in
the mid 19th century. These artists confronted the gallery system, in a time
of post-war plenty and long before recession set in, with work that resisted
monitarisation and defied reveration.
What is particularly interesting about Barron's work is his historic evocation
of modernist artefacts like land art and dadaism whilst his use of
telecommunications undermines the need for the object and simultaneously adds
layers of reference and implication. Whilst his work encourages us to expand
our perception out of the world of art and into the realms of people, politics
and economics it also evokes relationships that indicate its roots in, and
consideration of, the traditions of art and art history.
As mentioned above Barron is one of the artists associated with the "Aesthetics
of Communication Group" which also includes Derrick de Kerckhove and Fred
Forest amongst others. De Kerckhove is director of the McLuhan Project in
Toronto and the idea of telecommunications as a McLuhanistic extension and
connector of human minds is a common theme in their work. Another group
member, Mario Costa, is quoted from a 1983 statement by Frank Popper:
In Barron's work the act of digital sampling of the "content" (the ozone level,
sky colour, UV levels, etc..) converts everything into the same form. Myriad
0's and 1's are transported back and forth on the network then post-processed
and reconstituted as sensory phenomena - as the colours and sounds of the
actual artworks that we perceive installed in the gallery spaces. But these
are merely the terminators of a network and process and their purpose is as a
catalyst - to connect the human participants into the project.
- "In this type of event, it is not the exchanged content that matters, but
rather the network that is activated and the functional conditions of exchange.
The aesthetic object is replaced by the immateriality of field tensions and by
vital and organic energy (mental, muscular, affective) and artificial or
mechanical energy (electricity, electronics) that transform our mundane
object-centred sense of space and time. Equally the subject is transformed,
being no longer defined by rigid opposition of self/not-self, but becoming part
of this same flowing field of energy". (POP93)
In this way the artwork ceases to be an object that we appreciate for it's own
sake and becomes instead a gateway, or a portal, to a virtual space that we
experience in participation. A space that exists as much in the participants
head as in the frenetic binary signalling of the computational metamedium. A
space where serendipity replaces logic and where the singular words of Kurt
Schwitters, the architect of Merz:
are made plural and subtly shifted:
- "I am the meaning of the coincidence",
At the International Symposium on Electronic Art , ISEA 94 in Helsinki the
British Artist Paul Sermon exhibited his piece "Telematic Vision". It was
located at two sites - Helsinki's Museum of Art and the cafe of the main
conference hotel - the Marina. Each contained an identical chromakey-blue
settee. Both had video cameras trained on them and both images were
transmitted via an ISDN line and then composited together on large video
screens which faced the sitters. The simplicity of the idea belies its power -
people saw themselves sitting next to virtual but "live" companions from across
the city. It was fascinating to watch them learning how to accommodate and
communicate with these real ghosts. Kids played pillow fights and adults
dropped inhibitions and made overt sexual contact with complete strangers. In
the catalogue Sermon notes:
- "we are the coincidence of the meaning".
The kind of real-time video hook-ups used by Sermon were pioneered by artists
like Carl Loeffler (and others) in "Send/Receive" and Kit Galloway and Sherrie
Rabinowicz's "Satellite Arts Project" which both took place in 1977. Galloway
and Rabinowicz went on to found the Video Cafe in Santa Monica which remains an
international focus for network-based art and performance and Loeffler
established the ArtCom BBS at the Whole Earth (e)Lectronic Link (or the Well)
as one of the first artist's facilities on the internet.
- "The question of what existed before language is impossible to answer, as our
consciousness resides entirely within a perception through language. ....
"We are in another period of transition from language to medi-age, it is
impossible to speculate when and what will change, but when the question of
what existed before `mediage' arises - if, indeed, there is such a question -
the transformation will have happened". (SER94)
With the advent of personal-computer-based internet video clients like CU-SeeMe
the technology became available to many other artists albeit at much lower
spatial and temporal bandwidths. These "user friendly" internet tools have led
to a rapid growth in artistic activity on the networks.
In 1990 Tim Berners Lee, at the European Particle Physics
Laboratory - CERN in Geneva, developed a multiple media network protocol that
he called the World Wide Web (Web or WWW). It was in response to the
theoretical physicists who needed a rich-media publication medium in order to
circulate their ideas in a more timely fashion than the printed journals
allowed. An integrated authoring and browsing client was created using
NextStep and a simple terminal-mode browser (called www) enabled text-only
One of the institutions using the Web was the USA's National Centre for
Supercomputer Applications where an undergraduate student intern called Marc
Andreessen decided to create a user-friendly web browser he called Mosaic.
Beta-test versions of Mosaic started to appear early in 1993 and the product
was released on January 1st 1994. Two year later the 22 years old Andreessen is
worth about US$50 million.
Mosaic had the same effect on the internet that the Desktop/Windows style of
user interface had on personal computing. Many people, who would have
previously felt too intimidated to use network facilities were given confidence
by it's point and click simplicity. They quickly discovered that creating Web
documents was also pretty easy. Many of them were artists who saw in the Web
an ideal format for their entry into the virtual domain.
The result has been a meteoric growth in the number of art "sites" on the Web.
In January 1994 there were a few tens at most. The Visualisation Lab. at the
University of Illinios, Chicago and FineArt Forum Online were two. Now there
are tens of thousands. Most of them have little if any relationship to the
kind of developments described above. They consist of art placed on the
network in the format of a virtual gallery and have little in common with
post-modern ideology or communications-based art.
Most of these sites document object-centred artworks and use the web only to
promote and/or market these traditional forms. There are exceptions but
they're dogged by the poor response times of the web and it's lack of inbuilt
dynamic interaction. This will change as new "plug-in" tools like Macromedia's
"ShockWave" and Sun's "Java" get more widely integrated and the bandwidth of
the networks improve.
But the real culprit is the traditional media dogma that we ourselves bring to
the internet. We call web databases "pages" and the data servers "sites". The
metaphors to traditional print media and architectural spaces abound. It's
just like those early photographs that pretended to be academic paintings or
the first dramatic movies that copied the theatre stage and mapped the film
frame onto the proscenium arch.
It's our lack of ability to perceive the true nature of this new
multiple medium that is the most significant limitation on its use. It's also
my opinion that the more user-friendly tools haven't helped. On the contrary
they have actually impeded the development of more intrinsic methodologies by
reinforcing the old paradigm.
There is, of course, some excellent documentation and information on the Web.
It's a valuable library that is international in scope and comes straight into
your home. But I'm still waiting to see artworks that have the impact of the
earlier work described above.
User friendly tools work by adopting existing paradigmatic metaphors. In
essence they tell the user .. "there is nothing new to learn, your existing
knowledge and skill can be applied to these new systems". It's not surprising
therefore that they cauterise creative development and could possibly delay
(and may even prevent) the evolution of new methodologies and critical
What confuses many is the social egalitarian value of user-friendly tools which
have introduced many, who may not have otherwise got involved, to the
computational metamedium. Whenever I speak about my concerns many get angry,
believing that I am threatening their gateway to the new media or that I am
arguing for a elitist position. On the contrary it's my belief that access by
non-professionals is almost an essential prerequisite for a new language to
evolve. Those who are already trained in the arts have too much to unlearn and
to much to loose when the paradigm that nurtures them shifts into something new
and unknown. In photography it was the amateurs, thanks to Eastman's "Box
Brownie" cameras, who broke all the rules and established new foundations for
the photographic language to evolve.
The problem is that a user-friendly computer system is not a simple Box Brownie
camera. It's an extremely sophisticated system pretending to be something
else. Pretending to be simple. Just like the aliens in "Invasion of the Body
Snatchers" who pretended to be the folks next door, dependable people who you
had known all your life. So you trusted them. And that's what concerns me.
ASC91a Ascott, Roy and Carl Loeffler (eds.) Connectivity: Art
and Interactive Telecommunications, a special issue of Leonardo - the journal
of the International Society for Art, Science and Technology (ISAST), Vol. 24
No. 2, 1991.
ASC91b Ascott, Roy, Mind City - City Cerveau, in ORO92 pp. 68-69.
BAR91 Barron, Stéphan, Lines: A Project by Stéphan Barron and
Sylvia Hansmann, in ASC91a pp. 185-186.
BAR94 Barron, Stéphan, Project notes for "Le Bleu du Ciel", 1994.
BAR95 Barron, Stéphan, Project notes for the Sym Choon Gallery show,
Telstra Adelaide Festival 1996, 1995.
BRO91 Brown, Paul, Communion and Cargo Cults, Proc. Second International
Symposium on Electronic Arts (SISEA), Groningen, the Netherlands, 1991.
BRO92a Brown, Paul, The Convergence of Reality and Illusion, Proc HiVision 92,
Tokyo, Japan 1992.
BRO92b Brown, Paul, Reality versus Imagination, ACM SIGGRAPH Art Show Catalog,
ACM NY 1992.
DOC94 Australian Federal Department of Communication and the Arts, Creative
Nation - Commonwealth Cultural Policy, 1994.
GIB95 Gibson, Ross, Speaking at James Cook University, Queensland, September
KAC92 Kac, Eduardo, On the Notion of Art as a Visual Dialogue, in ORO92
LAU63 Lau, D.C. (translator), Lao Tzu's Tao te Ching, Penguin Books, London
MIN87 Minsky, Marvin, The Society of Mind, Heinemann, 1987.
ORO91 O'Rourke, Karen, City Portraits: an Experience in the Interactive
Transmission of Imagination, in ASC91a, pp 215-219.
ORO92 O'Rourke, Karen (coordinator), Art Reseaux - ouvrage collectif project
art-reseaux, Editions du C.E.R.A.P., 1992.
POP91 Popper, Frank, Assessing City Portraits, in ORO92 pp.66-67.
POP93 Popper, Frank, Art of the Electronic Age, Thames and Hudson 1993.
SER94 Sermon, Paul, Telematic Vision, ISEA 94 Catalogue, Helsinki 1994, pp.43
Parts of this chapter first appeared as "Stéphan Barron at the Sym Choon
Gallery", a catalogue essay written for the 1996 Telstra Adelaide Festival.
This essay first appeared in Intelligent Tutoring Media (now renamed
Digital Creativity) Vol. 7, No. 3 October 1996 and as a
chapter in Computers & Art
edited by Stuart Mealing, both published by Intellect. For further information:
Computers & Art, ISBN 1-871516-60-9
Digital Creativity, ISSN 0957-9133
Earl Richard Road North
Exeter EX2 6AS
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